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Science progress in European countries: new concepts and modern solutions Hosted by the ORT Publishing and The Center For Social and Political Studies Premier Conference papers Volume ...

-- [ 1 ] --

1st International Scientific Conference

Science progress in European countries:

new concepts and modern solutions

Hosted by the ORT Publishing and

The Center For Social and Political Studies Premier

Conference papers

Volume 3

March 28, 2013

Stuttgart, Germany

1st International Scientific Conference

Science progress in European countries: new concepts and modern solutions:

Volume 3

Papers of the 1st International Scientific Conference (Volume 1). March 28, 2013, Stuttgart, Germany. 140 p.

Edited by Ludwig Siebenberg Technical Editor: Peter Meyer ISBN 978-3-944375-17-5 Published and printed in Germany by ORT Publishing (Germany) in assocation with the Center For Social And Political Studies Premier (Russia) March 2013, 700 copies ORT Publishing Schwieberdingerstr. 59 70435 Stuttgart, Germany info@ortpublishing.de www.ortpublishing.de All rights reserved ORT Publishing ISBN 978-3-944375-17-5 All authors of the current issue Section 1. Chemistry Section 1. Chemistry DenisovaXenia Sergeevna a student of the Birsk branch of the Bashkir State University Lygin Sergey Aleksandrovisch supervisor, Associate Professor of the Birsk Branch of the Bashkir State University , Crystal its properties and growth conditions 렗 , .   . . . , 蠫

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Section 1. Chemistry

   

   

The dispersing of elements of the subgroup of carbonin organic liquids Specific properties of materialsin nanostate open broad possibilities for creation of new miniature and super miniature systems, preparations with new biological properties for usingin ecology, medicine and agriculture 1.

At present nanostructures on carbon base: fullerens, nanotubes, graphen are mostly studied. With use of thermic destructions of carbon such methods of carbon nanostructures producing as electric arc, pyrolytic ones were developed, for them high energetical expenditures are characteristic due toimperfectness of apparatus equipment. For broadinculcation of carbon nanostructures tovarious fields of science, technics and manufacture the searching of new, energy-saving, simplein conducting methods of graphite dispersingis necessary for the purpose of carbon nanostructures synthesis.

The method of solid nanostructuringinimpulse plasma (IPL), created betweenimmersedinto liquid phase two electrodesis perspective 2.

In given paper the results of experiments on nanostructuring of carbon subgroup elementsin different liquid media under action of high energeticalIPL were stated.

Gates B. C., Guezi L., Knosinger H. Metal Clusters in Catalysis. Amsterdam. - Elsivier. - 1986. - 234 .; Pomogailo A. D., Rozenberg A. S., UflandI. E. Nanoparticles of metalsin polymers. -M.: Himiya. -2000. - 672p.

   

Itis shown, that phase compositions, morphology of formed phases at dispersing of graphite, silicium, tin and led depend on nature of nanostructuring element and nature of dispersion medium.

Carbon, silicium, germany, tin and led areintroducedin main subgroup ofIV group of Periodic Table.

Itis known majority of carbon allotropic modifications, for example, diamond, grafite, carbene, nanotubes, fullerens and graphen with three types of atomic orbitals hybridization (fig.1). Graphite and diamond were discoveredin nature long ago, but carbenes, nanotubes and fullerens were first found and studiedin laboratories, information on their presencein nature was received last decades. Graphite and carbine are endless systems with regular structure. Fullerens family ofindividual molecules with closed structure 1.

Graphite (sp-hybridization) the most stable carbon modification under ordinary conditions, having layered structure. In layers carbon atomis firmly bound by chemical bond with three other atoms, located on distance of 0.142nm, CC-C angleis equal to 120. The distance between layersis 0.335nm and layers are connected with each other by weakVan-der-Waals forces 2.

Two graphite modifications are distinguished hexagonal and rhomboedric. In hexagonal graphite the half of carbon of every layeris located above and under of centres of hexagone from carbon atoms. Elementary cell represents prism, in base of which rhombus with acute angle of 60 and edge lengfh of 0.246nm, prism height of 0.67nm and such cell contains four carbon atoms (a = 0.246nm, c = 0.671nm). More seldom rhomboedric modification of graphiteis met with cell parameters a = 0.364nm, = 39.49, z = 4, and every fourth layer repeats first 3. This graphite modificationisnt observedin pure kind, asitis metastable phase. Butin natural graphites the content of rhomboedric phase may reach 30%. Graphiteis widely usedin chemicalindustry for manufacture of heat exchangers, pipelines for aggressive media, as filler for plastic masses, material for electrodes of different purposes, bone and toothimplantants. In metallurgyitis used for manufacture of fusion owens, pipes, crystallizers, cases for thermocouples etc.

Diamond (sp-hybridization) the most solid material, cubic polymorphic (allotropic) modification of carbon, stable under high pressure.

Under atmospheric pressure and room temperature diamondis metastable, butit may exist unlimitly long, not convertinginto stable under these conditions graphite. Crystal lattice of diamond cubic centre facet (CCF), a = 0.357nm, space group Fd3m. Valent angle between any bonds makes up 109.28 4. Every carbon atomin diamond structureis locatedin tetraedr structure, tops of which the four nearest atoms are 5.

Such firm bond of carbon atoms ensures high solidity of diamond, which finds applicationinindustry for manufacture of special cutting tools, drills. Using of diamond as active element of microelectronics, in particularin high exact and highvoltage electronicsis perspective 6.

Carbene (sp-hybridization) carbon allotropic modification, openedin 1963 7, represents finely crystalline powder of black colour (density of 1.92g/cm). Carbene structureis formed by carbon atoms, connectedinto chains by double bonds (C=C=C=C=) or alternative ordinary and triple bonds (-CCCC-). Carbene was obtained by acetylene catalytical oxidation way. On the base of results of crystal carbene structureinvestigations the model ofits elementary cell was offered, according whichitis made up of parallel chains of carbon, having zigzags, thanks toit cell becomes double-layered. The thickness of one layeris made up by chain of carbon six atoms. In low layer chains are closely packed and are locatedin the centre and on angles of hexagons, whilein upper layer central chainis absent, andin formedvacancy admixtures atoms may be located. Carbene possesses a semiconductive property thatis onit possible carbine usein photoelementsis based.

In 1990one more allotropic modification of carbon fullerenes 8 was produced. Fullerens represent closed spherical polyedr, whole built from carbon atomsin sp-hybridization and consisting of 12pentagonal and (n/210) hexagonal polygon, where n20 (fig.1). Fullerens formulas are written as C60, C70etc., where lowindex shows carbon atoms numberin one closed particle. Specific structure of fullerens (hollow balls, ellipsoids) makes them attractive for using at transport of necessary medical preparations to damaged organism places.

   

BashmakovV. I. Chemistry of elements ofIV group of Periodic System. technolog.edu.ru Ubbelode A. R., Lewis F. A. Graphite andits crystal compounds. Oxford. - Clarendon Press. - 1960. - 265.

Dyadin Yu. A. Structure and properties of graphite. Graphite anditsinclusion compounds.//Soros educational journal.//Educational Journal of Soros 2000. - www.pereplet.ru/obrazovanie/stsoros/1092.html.

BashmakovV. I. Chemistry of elements ofIV group of Periodic System. technolog.edu.ru Diamond. - http://wiki.web.ru Hiromitsu Kato. New n-Type Diamond Semiconductor Synthesized.//Aist today. - 2005. - V. 5. - 9. - P. 20 - 21.

Sladkov A. M., Kudryavtsev Y. P. Diamond, graphite, carbine-carbons allotropic forms.//Priroda. - 1969. - 5. - P. 37 - 44.

Kroto H. W., Heath J. R., OBrien S. C. et al. C60: Buckminsterfullerene.//Nature. - 1985. - V. 318. - 14. - P. 162 - 163.

Section 1. Chemistry Japanese scientist S.

Iidjimoin 1991first had discovered at electric arc evaporation of graphite electrodes the formation of cylinder structures, which he had named nanotubes 1. Nanotubes represent cylinders from folded graphite layer. The surface of such tubes is layed

with correct hexagons (fig.1), they may be mono- and polylayered. Due to their unique properties (high firmness 63GPe, superconductivity, capillar, optical, magnetic properties etc.) carbon nanotubes are used for creation of supersolid thread, composite materials, nanobalances, monitors, light diods, and may also serve as transistors, nanowiresin electronics. Medicineis perspective field of nanotubes use.

Graphen represents two-dimensional allotropic modification of carbon (fig.1), obtainedin October, 2004in the University of Manchesters 2.

Graphen consists of plane layer of carbon atoms with thickness of one atom, whichisin sp-hybridization and connected by - and -bondsinto hexagonal two-dimensional crystal lattice. Distance between the nearest carbon atomsin hexagons makes up 0.142nm 3. Graphenis apparent, has high meanings of electroconductivity and heat conductivityin comparison with other carbon materials. These properties allow to considerit as base for manufacture of apparent electrodes, which can find use at producing of modern sensor monitors and photoelements 4.

At action on graphite of energy ofimpulse plasma createdinvarious liquids fullerens, carbon nanotubes and ultradispersed diamond are formed 5. On the base of received experimental data 6 it was shown (fig.2) thatin aqueous medium carbon polylayered nanotubes and ultradispersed diamondis formed. At graphite dispersingin organic liquids (hexane, stirrene and toluene) C60fullerene was obtained.

Fig.2. Mass-spectrum of fullerene sootin toluene (a). CS spectra and TEM photograph of carbon nanotubes, obtained fromimpulse plasmain water (b). CS spectra and microelectrongram of ultradispersed diamond fromimpulse plasmain liquid (c). TEM photograph of nanodiamond (d).

Differing from carbon, siliciumis metin kind of one stable cubic modification with sp-hybridization of electron orbitals, with width of forbided zone Eg = 1.17eV (T = 4K). Siliciumin different their forms (crystalline, polycrystalline, amorphous) is the base of modern microelectronics and photosensitive optoelectronics. The effectiveness ofirradiated recombinationin pure Siisvery small because of nondirect nature of optical transfers, increaseitis possible, forming nanocrystals with sizes of 23nm 7.

Iijima S. Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon.//Nature. - 1991. - V. 354. - P. 56.

Geim A., Novoselov K. Electric Field Effectin Atomically Thin Carbons Films.//Science. - 2004. - V. 306. P. 666.

Graphen. Wikipedia. - http://ru.wikipedia.org Tselev A., Lavrik N., VlassioukI. et al. Near-field microwave scanning probeimaging of conductivityinhomogeneitiesin CVD grapheme.//Nanotechnology.

- 2012. - V. 23. - 38. - P. 385706.

Jasnakunov J. K. Carbon nanostructures fromimpulse plasmain liquids. Dis.... Candid. Chem. Sciences: 02.00.01. - Bishkek, 2009. - 110p.

   

Silicium nanoparticles possess such properties as biocompatibility, biodegradation and high penetrating ability. Theyincrease penetration of cell membranes, due to this medical substances, binded with particles, may be broughtin less doses. More over, silicium nanoparticlesinhibit cancerous cells division, and nanoparticlesin combination with ultra sound these cells kill.

TimoshenkoV. Y. with coauthors 1 studied properties of nanoparticles of polycrystalline or porous silicium. They were addedinto nutrient medium, in which cells of humans larynx cancer or mouses fibroblasts were grown. So, it was established by researches that silicium nanoparticles binded with medical preparations andintroducedinto cancer at concentration higher than 3mg/mlinhibit cells growth, both of normal and cancerous cells.

Studing effect of sound waves on biological objects authors 2 had found thatirradiation of high power (2Vt/1cm) destroys till 30% of cancerous cells, in the presence of nanoparticles the quantity of living cells decreasesin 4times compared with controle (ultrasound without nanoparticles) for 30min. Particles from porous silicium are more effective than from polycrystalline: practically all malignant cells are destroyed. At low ultrasoundintensity (0.2Vt/cm) cells with nanoparticles didnt die, but during 80hours cease division. Researches propose that received results can find usein oncology.

Scientists from University of New-Mxico 3 continue to optimize the size of nanoparticles from porous silicium, obtaining by airolyzation of precursors solutions for killing of cancerous cells. Silicium nanoparticles with size from 50to 150nm, resembling bees honeycombs, cavities of which can be filled byvarious medical preparations, areideally fitable for maximum long circulationin blood and absorption by cancerous cells. Now this methodis tested on human cancerous cellsinvivo, at further on mousses cancers.

Analysis of difractogramm (fig.3a) of product of silicium dispersingin hexane obtained with use ofimpulse plasma showed formation of particles of silicium carbide. Silicium particles are crystallizedin cubic singony (space group F43m (216)) with lattice parameter a = 5.423 (JCPDF file 800018a = 5.392). Silicium carbideis also referred to cubic singony (space group F43m (216)) with lattice parameter a = 4.372 (JCPDF file 291129a = 4.358). In comparison with massive silicium and silicium carbide crystal lattices of silicium and silicium carbide fromimpulse plasma are broadened.

The phase composition of product was studied by help of roentgen energodispersion analyzer, by which scanning electron microscope (SEM) is equipped. Main phase silicium (70.65%), 29.35% silicium carbide. On SEM photograph (fig.3b) well formatted spherical silicium nanoparticles fromIPL with sizes from 57to 25120nm are seen.

Thus, at direct nanostructuring of siliciumin hexane with use ofIPL energyin difference from layered carbon nanotubes formation doesnt occur, but spherical silicium nanoparticlesin cubic singony with SCC-lattice 4 are formed.

Fig.3. Difractogramm and SEM photograph of product of dispersing of siliciumin hexane.

Tin and led are soft, low melted and well conducting electric current elements.

Tin existsin kind of three allotropic modifications grey tin (-Sn), white tin (-Sn). White tin silverish- white, shining metal, stable at temperatures above 13.2C, having tetragonal structure, low solidity and high plasticity. Grey tin grey powder without metal shining, stable at temperatures bellow 13.2C. This modification has crystal structure analogous to diamond, andis semi-conductor, as silicium and germany. Grey tinis convertedinto white only at refusion, but at low temperatures white tinis convertedinto grey. At temperatures above 161C -Sn modificationis formed from white tin. It resembles on appearance white tin, but differs by crystal structure and mechanical properties (less plastic and more fragile) 5.

Metallic tin finds use as anticorrosion covers of pipes, chemical reactors, casings of electric wires, it entersinto composition ofvarious easy-melting alloys. Metallic tin finds also use as reductant and catalyst 6.

Analysis of diffractogramm of product of white tin dispersing with use ofimpulse plasmainxylol showed (fig.4) the formation of pure metallic tinin tetragonal modification (-Sn) (space group 141/amd (141)) with lattice parameters: a = 5.831, c = 3.181 (JCPDF file 862265, a = 5.842, c = 3.185). On TEM photograph (JEOL JSM 6490LA) tin nanoparticles with sizes of 710nm are seen (fig.5).

TimoshenkoV. Y. Silicium nanocrystals against cancer. Nanomedicine.//The world of science. - 2012. - V. 08. - P. 4 - 9.

   

Sandia and UNM Lead Effort to Use Nanotechnology to Destroy Cancers. http://nanopatentsandinnovations.blogspot.com/2011/04/sandia-and-unmlead-effort-to-use.html Patent KG 1284. - 2010. The method of producing of films of nanocrystalline silicium./Sulaimankulova S. K., Asanov U. A., Matkasymova . . et al.

BashmakovV. I. Chemistry of elements ofIV group of Periodic System. technolog.edu.ru

   

Section 1. Chemistry Fig.

4. Diffractogramm of product of tin dispersinginxylol medium.

Authors synthesized large quantity of tin nanoparticles with narrow distribution on sizes by tin salts reduction by modified carbohydrates.

Average size of tin nanoparticles 29.1nm. They showed that tin nanoparticles melt under lower temperature, thanvolumable tin. Massive tin melts at 232C, tin nanoparticles with diameter of 11.3nm at 177C. The energy expenditure at this temperature decreases due to less heat stress. Tin nanoparticles may be used as conductingink for printering. The conductivity of tin with nanoparticlesincreasesin 20times.

Tin nanoparticles, obtained by authors 2, have same crystal structure as tin nanoparticles fromimpulse plasma (fig.5b).

Fig.5. TEM photograph of tin nanoparticles: a fromimpulse plasma, b from literature date 3.

Composition compounds from tin-lithium and tin-silicium-lithium, containing nanodispersed tin, may be used as electrode materialsin batteries of new generation with large capacity. Stable structure of such materials, stimulated by tin, allows repeated use of electrodes without significant decreasing of effectiveness 4.

The greatest quantity of ledis spent to manufacture of electric wires casings, internal covering of reservoirs. In chemicalindustry ledis almostirreplaceablein sulphuric acid production and storage 5. Metallic led absorbs -, - and - radiation well. Led nanoparticles using as superconductive materialsis perspective 6.

Yun Hwan Jo, Inyu Jung, Chung Seok Choi et al. Synthesis and characterization of low temperature Sn nanoparticles for the fabrication of highly conductiveink.//Nanotechnology. - 2011. - V. 22. - 22. - P. 225701

   

Patent 2370858. - 2005. Composition materials of nanodispersed silicium and tin and methods of their producing./Gao Yuan, Disburg Daniel, John Engel et al.

Kozin L. F., Morachevsky A. G. Physics - chemistry and metallurgy of superpure led. ., 1991.

   

For led nanoparticles synthesis by researchers 1 the method of led stearate decompositionin organic solvent, heated to temperature, exceedingits thermic stability, was used. In result of experiment led powder, consisting of particles of round form with sizes of 60100nm, was obtained. This synthesis method allows producing led nanoparticlesin large scale for one experiment, and also controlling their sizes.

Authors 2 had given experimental diffractogramms (fig.6, above) for massive and nanostructured led, obtained from melt atintroduction under pressure (led-10 Kbar) into porous glasses with average pores diameter of 7nm. After cooling samples were taken, their surfaces were carefully cleaned from rests of massive material. Then freshly cleaned plates wereinvestigated on roentgen diffractometre DRON-2 with using of Cu K radiation ( = 1.54187) at room temperature. Itis shown, that they arevery similar and correspond to same crystal structure cubic Fm3m. The study of diffraction spectra with help of FULLPROF program on Ritveld method allows authors to establish parameter of elementary cell of nanostructures Pb a = 4.951.

Conducted by us analysis of diffractogramms of product of led dispersingin hexane, obtained with use ofimpulse plasma (fig.6), found reflection lines of only metallic Pb with SCC structure (space group Fm3m (A1), a = 4.952 (JCPDF file 040686, c = 4.850). The broadening of crystal lattices of nanoled, obtained by authors 3 and with use of energy ofimpulse plasmais possibly connected with high energy saturation of nanoobjectsin comparison with massive led.

Fig.6. Diffractogramm of product of led dispersinginimpulse plasmain hexane. Diffractogramm (above) for massive (1) and nanostructured (2) led; atinsertion of whole width on half of height (FWHM) K1 reflex component for massive led (1) and nanostructured led (2) 4.

Therefore, at dispersing of layered graphiteinimpulse plasma, createdin water, liquid hydrocarbons, carbon polylayered nanotubes, ultradispersed diamond, C60and C70fullerenes are formed. At dispersing of silicium with densed lattice of diamond typeinIPLin hexane medium spherical nanoparticles of silicium and silicium carbide are formed. Ledin hexane medium also forms spherical nanoparticles with SCC structure and average size of 6080nm. Analysis of diffractogramm of product of tin dispersinginimpulse plasmainxylol medium showed formation of pure nanoparticles of metallic tin, crystallizingin tetragonal singony. The absence of carbide nanoparticles for led and tin at their dispersingin hydrocarbons (hexane, xylol) is explained by that these elements dontinteract with carbon forming carbides.

Reference:

1. Gates B. C., Guezi L., Knosinger H. Metal Clustersin Catalysis. Amsterdam. Elsivier. 1986. 234.

2. Pomogailo A. D., Rozenberg A. S., UflandI. E. Nanoparticles of metalsin polymers. -M.: Himiya. 2000. 672p.

3. Sulaimankulova S. K., Asanov U. A. Energy saturated mediain plasma of spark discharge. Bishkek: Kyrgyzpatent. 2002. 264p.

4. BashmakovV. I. Chemistry of elements ofIV group of Periodic System. technolog.edu.ru

5. Ubbelode A. R., Lewis F. A. Graphite andits crystal compounds. Oxford. Clarendon Press. 1960. 265.

6. Dyadin Yu. A. Structure and properties of graphite. Graphite anditsinclusion compounds.//Soros educational journal.//Educational Journal of Soros 2000. www.pereplet.ru/obrazovanie/stsoros/1092.html.

7. Diamond. http://wiki.web.ru

8. Hiromitsu Kato. New n-Type Diamond Semiconductor Synthesized.//Aist today. 2005. V. 5. 9. P. 2021.

9. Sladkov A. M., Kudryavtsev Y. P. Diamond, graphite, carbine-carbons allotropic forms.//Priroda. 1969. 5. P. 3744.

10. Kroto H. W., Heath J. R., OBrien S. C. et al. C60: Buckminsterfullerene.//Nature. 1985. V. 318. 14. P. 162163.

11. Iijima S. Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon.//Nature. 1991. V. 354. P. 56.

12. Geim A., Novoselov K. Electric Field Effectin Atomically Thin Carbons Films.//Science. 2004. V. 306. P. 666.

13. Graphen. Wikipedia. http://ru.wikipedia.org Akimov D. V. Egorov N. B. The synthesis of led nanoparticles. http://www.rusnauka.com/24_NNP_2012/Chimia/7_115532.doc.htm Naberezhnov A. A., Covestnov A. E., Fokin A. V. The features of crystal structure ofindium and led at conditions of restricted geometry.//Journal of Technical Physics. - 2011. - V. 81. - 5. - P. 49 - 54.

   

Section 1. Chemistry

14. Tselev A., Lavrik N., Vlassiouk I. et al. Near-field microwave scanning probe imaging of conductivity inhomogeneities in CVD grapheme.//Nanotechnology. 2012. V. 23. 38. P. 385706.

15. Jasnakunov J. K. Carbon nanostructures fromimpulse plasmain liquids. Dis. Candid. Chem. Sciences: 02.00.01. Bishkek, 2009. 110p.

16. TimoshenkoV. Y. http://ebookbrowse.com/lecture03-timoshenko-pdf-d412360107

17. TimoshenkoV. Y. Silicium nanocrystals against cancer. Nanomedicine.//The world of science. 2012. V. 08. P. 49.

18. Sandia and UNM Lead Effort to Use Nanotechnology to Destroy Cancers. http://nanopatentsandinnovations.blogspot.com/2011/04/sandiaand-unm-lead-effort-to-use.html

19. Patent KG 1284. 2010. The method of producing of films of nanocrystalline silicium./Sulaimankulova S. K., Asanov U. A., Matkasymova . . et al.

20. Yun Hwan Jo, Inyu Jung, Chung Seok Choi et al. Synthesis and characterization of low temperature Sn nanoparticles for the fabrication of highly conductiveink.//Nanotechnology. 2011. V. 22. 22. P. 225701

21. Patent 2370858. 2005. Composition materials of nanodispersed silicium and tin and methods of their producing./Gao Yuan, Disburg Daniel, John Engel et al.

22. Kozin L. F., Morachevsky A. G. Physics chemistry and metallurgy of superpure led. ., 1991.

23. Akimov D. V. Egorov N. B. The synthesis of led nanoparticles. http://www.rusnauka.com/24_NNP_2012/Chimia/7_115532.doc.htm

24. Naberezhnov A. A., Covestnov A. E., Fokin A. V. The features of crystal structure of indium and led at conditions of restricted geometry.//Journal of Technical Physics. 2011. V. 81. 5. P. 4954.

Science progress in European countries: new concepts and modern solutions

   

Principles of urban green logistics Modern ecological problems of many Ukrainian cities already have becomevery actual. Thisis due to harmful traffic andindustrial emissions, uncontrolled formation and accumulation of hazardous waste, keeping environmentally hazardousindustries, overloading of urban space with freight flows. One of the promising ways of overcoming mentioned above problemsis using principles and approaches of green logistics, usually notincludedinvast majority of urban development programs.

Cities are complex dynamic systems, carrying fundamentalimportance for the development of any country. Industrial and scientific potential of the stateis formedin cities; they are the pioneersin theimplementation of scientific and technological progressin order to develop strategic competitive prospects ofits development and quality living standards 1.

Adinterim logistic approach, providing optimal management of economic flows and stocksin the complex organizational, technical and socio-economic systems to achieve goals with minimum cost, is not widely usedin the system of city management to support the economic and environmental security2.

Itis obvious that logisticsis closely connected with the structure of the city: transport networks, urban zones, nodes, ie, the architecture and urban planning, as well as the environment 3. Since thereis an urgent need to minimize pollution, improve efficiency of logistics resources, optimization of management decisions on the use of material, financial and other resources, itis necessary to use the principles of urban green logistics.

Thevalue of green logistics as a tool for maintenance of the ecological safetyis growing; itis an example of socially useful and profitable business symbiosis ecology and economy, which satisfies the conditions as environmental protection and growth of economic activity 4.

In ourview, urban green logisticsis an aggregation of logistical approaches to optimize directions of material flows (including flows of waste and secondary resources for treatment), vehicles, natural, financial, information, energy and human resources with the use of advanced technologiesin process of decision making by local governments to create an environment within which provided the population, increased efficiency of urban and reached a condition to minimize the negative effects of humaninterventionin the ecosystem of the city.

The study of foreign experiencein applying the principles of green logistics one can argue that the role ofinstitutional support of green logisticsin the system management has become crucial. Itis noteworthy that for most citiesin Ukraineis characterized by use of the principles of green logistics. One of the major reasons for thisis lack ofinstitutional support green logisticsin the system of the city. Thatis not the mechanism responsible forimplementing the principles of green logisticsin the city.

The basic principles of urban green logistics are:

1. System approach. Treating city as a systemis the main feature of urban green logistics. The maximum effect can be obtained only when urban material flows are optimized throughout the supply chain, not only withinindividual enterprises.

2. The principle of rational localization of production facilities. Production facilities should be placed as close as possible to the city which provides skilled laborers, while being distanced enough from the urban sanitary protection zone, with regards to urban perspective development plans.

3. The principle of logistical coordination. Processing management of material flowsin the city, itis necessary to ensure coherencein time for all parts of the logistics chain. This principleinvolves the development of coordinated plans for management of material flows within the city and beyond, the development of standards and technical conditions for logistics operations, forecasting supplyinventories and capital goods without creating congestionin the city system and the minimum acceptable level ofimpact on the ecosystem.

4. The principle of stability and adaptability. Logistics system performingits functionsin a relatively wide range shall not adversely affect the sustainability of the city.

Applying principles of green logisticsin the system of the city mainly depends on local authorities that activelyinteract with other entities toinitiate the formation of newinstitutional framework of a new urban model, where economic, social and environmental factors are combined, since the economicimpact assessment of the ecological state of the city andits populationis crucial.

   

Development of domestic tourismin Kazakhstan -, , . , Moroz . Experience of nymechchynyin creation of regional logistic centers: [Internet recourse]/access mode: http://www. nbuv.gov.ua/portal/soc_gum/ en_re/2008_5_4/zbirnnuk _RE_4_398. pdf.

LivshitsV. Logistics city: [Internet recourse]/access mode: http://www.proza.ru/text/2007/01/28273.html.

Moroz . Experience of nymechchynyin creation of regional logistic centers: [Internet recourse]/access mode: http://www. nbuv.gov.ua/portal/soc_gum/ en_re/2008_5_4/zbirnnuk _RE_4_398. pdf.

Smirnov . G. Green logstics: ecology -geografyvimr//Ukrayinsky geografchny magazine. - 2002. - 2. - P. 49 - 52.

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